Design and implementation of a conveyor belt system using PLC

  The design of a conveyor belt system using a programmable logic controller (PLC) involves several steps:

  • Identify the requirements of the system: Determine the type of conveyor belt, the load it needs to carry, the speed at which it needs to operate, and the distance it needs to cover.
  • Choose the PLC: Select a PLC that has the necessary inputs and outputs to control the conveyor belt and meets the requirements of the system.
  • Design the electrical circuit: Create a circuit diagram that shows how the PLC, sensors, and actuators will be connected. This will include the power supply, input and output devices, and any other electrical components required.
  • Write the PLC program: Use a programming language such as Ladder Logic to write the program that will control the conveyor belt. The program will include instructions for starting and stopping the conveyor belt, monitoring the sensors, and controlling the actuators.
  • Test and debug the system: Test the system to ensure that it is functioning correctly. Debug any errors that are found in the program or the electrical circuit.
  • Install and commission the system: Install the PLC, sensors, and actuators on the conveyor belt. Commission the system by testing it again to ensure that it is working correctly.
  • Maintenance and troubleshooting: Regularly maintain the system to prevent failures and ensure that the conveyor belt is working correctly. Troubleshoot any issues that arise with the help of the PLC program and circuit diagrams.


Scope of project:

Today automation used in every industrial and many other application such as loading ,shifting the material in various application point and also transferring the material from one place to another place for saving time ,cost ,labor  work, and do not cause any damage to the material while shifting the material.       

Scientific automation includes integration of additional functions in the software PLC. In addition to sequential control, motion control and control technology, the software PLC also includes measurement technology and other components.


In various section there is a problem of availability of space for shifting the material or transferring the material from down side to upside so we here use to shift the material from down to up by pneumatic cylinder. First off all the material is loaded on conveyor belt that loaded material moves towards the flat platform which situated on pneumatic cylinder. The pneumatic cylinder applying the pressure to move the material upward direction, then there is one another pneumatic cylinder which place horizontally in front of second conveyor belt .The second pneumatic cylinder push the material on second conveyor belt which pass the material at target point .

         The belt consists of one or more layers of material they can be made out of rubber.  Many belts in general material handling have two layers. An under layer of material to provide linear strength and shape called a carcass and an over layer called the cover. The carcass is often a cotton or plastic web or mesh. The cover is often various rubber or plastic compounds specified by use of the belt. Covers can be made from more exotic materials for unusual applications such as silicone for heat or gum rubber when traction is essential.

       Material flowing over the belt may be weighed in transit using a belt weighter. Belts with regularly spaced partitions, known as elevator belts, are used for transporting loose materials up steep inclines. Belt Conveyors are used in self-unloading bulk freighters and in live bottom trucks. Conveyor technology is also used in conveyor  transport such as moving sidewalks or, escalators as well as on many manufacturing assembly lines. 

Stores often have conveyor belts at the check-out counter to move shopping items. Ski areas also use conveyor belts to transport skiers up the hill. A wide variety of related conveying machines are available, different as regards principle of operation, means and direction of conveyance, including vibrating screw conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, the moving floor system, which uses reciprocating slats to move cargo, and roller conveyor system, which uses a series of powered rollers to convey boxes or pallets.Conveyors are used as components in automated distribution and warehousing. 

In combination with computer controlled pallet handling equipment this allows for more efficient retail, wholesale, and manufacturing distribution. It is considered a labor saving system that allows large volumes to move rapidly through a process, allowing companies to ship or receive higher volumes with smaller storage space and with less labor expense.Rubber Conveyor Belts are commonly used to convey items with irregular bottom surfaces, small items that would fall in between rollers (e.g. a sushi conveyor bar), or bags of product that would sag between rollers. Belt conveyors are generally fairly similar in construction consisting of a metal frame with rollers at either end of a flat metal bed. The rollers allow weight to be conveyed as they reduce the amount of friction generated from the heavier loading on the belting. Belt conveyors can now be manufactured with curved sections which use tapered rollers and curved belting to convey products around a corner. These conveyor systemsare commonly used in postal sorting offices and airport baggage handling systems.




Our project is totally based on conveyor belt that is use to transfer the material upward and downward direction. There is use of two conveyor belt first is upper side and other is lower side and there is use of two electrically operated dcmotor and proximity sensor to sense the material location and also use the PLC  for automatic on off the motor.
Firstly material is loaded on first conveyor belt that is homing position by manually and we press the start push button so the material in homing position and sensor1 sense that material then the motor1 is start . so the material move forward then the material shifted on lower cylinder platform. So when the material on that plat form and the second sensor which are located perpendicular to the material that sence that material after sensation by according to the program the relay is operated and the it give signal to the solenoid valve coil. This solenoid valve having two coil that is for up, down motion for lower cylinder and forward reveres motion for upper cylinder .so the coil giving the pressure  to the lower cylinder to move the cylinder shaft upward. The pressure required  for  this process we are taken from compressor. The cylinder shaft is operated at the pressure of 30-40 bar. So this pressure moves the material up direction. At his condition the lower i.e. motor1 should be stop because platform of lower cylinder at up position so the material fall down through the belt. When material reaches up located position there placed third sensor is sense the material and the upper motor2 start and also at that time the second relay operated by same manner that previously explain and the second valve coil is operated that giving the pressure to the upper valve  and the shaft of that cylinder moves forward so the material which are located on that platform is shifted on the upper belt and move towards the target position . When the material is shifted according to program the lower cylinder shaft and upper cylinder shaft moves down and reverse respectively by applying pressure through the solenoid valve. When material reach target point that minces at last location the last sensor4 is sense that material and the mtor2 is stop, this material is shifted by manually or by robotics hand to the storing position. This continuously done by starting first motor again. 




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